Historical development of gardens

The very beginnings of gardening date back to prehistoric times only when our ancestors were removing trees in the forests to stimulate growth of plants that had been using. The first real gardens emerged around 10.000 BC in the Middle East. This were enclosed parts of the land where cultivated plants were planted to be protected from wild animals. Gardening was transferred from the Middle East to Egypt, Greece, Rome, and then to the rest of Europe.

In ancient times wealthy individuals began to create gardens solely for aesthetic purposes. From the 16th century BC is preserved evidence of Egyptian ornamental gardens and the fact that the Egyptians had already developed design and landscaping. The characteristic of early Egyptian gardens was that they had water motifs in form of channels.

The ancient Greeks had a well-developed culture of gardens. The gardens were for growing vegetables, fruits and vines for wine production. In cities there were so-called urban gardens, which were designed for sport activities. Academies had their own gardens, which were designed  ofr lectures and debating between students and professors. Private gardens have gained in importance somewhat later, when the Greeks began to emulate the Egyptians and Persians. Persians were known for their symmetrical gardens.

The Romans were more into garden culture and they gave more attention to ornamental gardens. From 27 BC has survived the first written record of instructions for gardening. Archaeological excavations have revealed that the gardens were an integral part of rich Roman villas. Gardens had water motifs, topiari, roses and various other items.

With the decline of Rome garden culture in the central European was a bit lost. Only in Byzantium and Moorish Spain they continued to develop gardens. In Europe during the Middle Ages were dominant monastery gardens in which monks cultivated fruits, vegetables and herbs. In the meantime, in China, an individual garden culture was developed, which was based on emulating the landscape in a small area. Gardening was mainly for aristocrats and monks who developed the zen gardens. From China garden culture spread to Japan.

In Europe, gardening culture continued to develop during the Renaissance. Interest in antiquity led to the rediscovery of garden culture and they started to emerge gardens of various shapes. In the 15th century and early 16th century began to emerge Italian Renaissance gardens and in the second half of the 16th century, they began to establish the first public parks. In the 17th century rich baroque gardens in France were developed, which were replaced in the 18th century with English garden. In the 19th century there have been new forms of gardens, which were based on the natural shape of the gardens. In the 20th century garden design was strongly influenced by modernism and sustainable design was introduced.